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 How to write an essay

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
aziz dehani
عضو ممتاز
عضو ممتاز


عدد المساهمات : 77
تاريخ التسجيل : 09/10/2010
العمر : 39
الموقع : tiddas

مُساهمةموضوع: How to write an essay   الأحد أكتوبر 10, 2010 5:15 am

The main types of writings that students are supposed to write in the baccalaureate exam are:
• Cause and effect essays
• Argumentative essays
• Comparison and contrast essays
• Descriptive essays
It’s very important to know the use of linking words so as to make your essay cohesive and coherent. Besides, try to write as simply as possible. Don’t try to be Shakespeare, be just yourself. “Keep it simple and stupid” As Americans say. Write simple sentences because long sentences are difficult to control. Then, connect them with linking words which are like spices in cooking. They will make your composition like a delicious dish.
Let’s look at the different types of sentences:
• Simple sentences:
A simple sentence is a sentence which has a subject and a verb.
Examples:
I live in Morocco.
They speak English very well.
I often give my friends present on their birthdays.
They travelled to Agadir last summer.
We are listening to Rai music.

• A compound sentence contains independent clauses joined by: and, or, but, so.

I watched a movie, and my brother played computer games.
She was tall, but her sister was short.
They can play in basketball, or go swimming.
It was very cold, so I stayed at home.
• A complex sentence is a sentence which has a principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses. A complex sentence has always a subordinator, such as: because, because of, due to, as , since

Because it was cold, I put on my coat.
I put on my coat because of the cold.
Due to the cold, I put on my coat.
I put on my coat due to the cold.

• CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAYS:
LINKING WORDS:
Because, because of, due to, as, since, therefore, consequently, thus, for this reason, that’s why, as a result, so

• INTRODUCTION: From general to specific

• PARAGRAPH 1: CAUSE 1 and its effects

• PARAGRAPH 2: CAUSE 2 and its effects

• PARAGRAPH 3: CAUSE 3 and its effects

• CONCLUSION: We sum up the points discussed in paragraph 1, 2, and 3 and we give our point of view.
Example:
Why do children drop out of school?
• INTRODUCTION: School is generally related to EDUCATION. Therefore, we are going to talk about education in general and end it up with our topic which is why children drop out of school.
• PARAGRAPH 1: CAUSE 1: the distance which separates school from home.
EFFECTS:
• Children have to cover a long distance
• Roads get muddy when it is rainy
• They get cut off from during inundations
• PARAGRAPH 2: CAUSE 2: Poverty
EFFECTS:
• Parents can’t afford buying educational stationery
• Parent can’t afford buying clothes for their children

• PARAGRAPH 3: CAUSE 3: Family problems.
EFFECTS:
• Domestic violence
• Parents’ drug addiction
• Divorce

• CONCLUSION: We sum up the points discussed in paragraph 1,2, and 3 and we give our point of view.

Why do children drop out of school?
Education ameliorates people’s lives, enhances their self esteem, their ability to learn new things which will help them expand their knowledge, and the ability to cope with the majority of the society. It makes them self-confident and informed populace that can understand issues, represent themselves, and take responsibility. However, a lot of children are deprived from this fundamental right by dropping out of school due to several reasons.
The distance which separate school from home can be a cause for refraining from school. Children have to cover more than 10 kilometers four times a dayget to school and can’t afford buying a bike which can facilitate the remoteness. Besides, in bad weather conditions, the roads get muddy and the temperature gets below zero, but they lack the necessary winter tools. Furthermore, when rivers flood, they get cut off from school for several days.
Poverty can push students for giving up studying since school fees are pricey. As parents don’t have enough money to buy school things which have become costly nowadays, they make their children leave school. Especially when they have a lot of children and they not only have to buy school books but clothes as well. The beginning of the school year costs parents an arm and leg and because of scarcity they prefer to keep their children at home.
Family problems can also be an obstacle for children to drop out of school. Parents’ misunderstandings can affect children’s schooling.For instance, when children see their mothers being beaten or scolded by their or parents, alcoholism, or drug-addiction. Finally, divorce often is of the major causes for ending up children’s literacy.
Remoteness from school, poverty, and family problems are among the reasons why students drop out opf school. Consequently,we should collaborate together so as to help these children benefit from their basic rights and become productive citizens.
PRACTICE:
Write about some of these topics:
• What effects does the internet have on your studies?
• Why people use the mobile and what are its effects on society?
• What are the causes and effects of brain drain?
• The majority of women in our country are illiterate. How does the phenomenon affect our society?
• Why do students grow weary of school and what effects can this have on their futures?
• A big proportion of the young don't participate in the poltical life. How can this affect their lives?
• What role does mass media play in culture?
• Do immigrants get integrated easily in their host country?
• How do mass media affect people’s lives?
• Should we imitate other cultures or stick to our culture?

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY:
Linking words:

although, though, even though, however, in spite of, despite, nevertheless, nonetheless, whereas, while, but, on the other hand, in contrast, on the contrary, again, and, also, besides, equally important, first (second, etc.), further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, moreover, next, too

- Introduction:
From general to specific
- Paragraph I: Arguments for (advantages)
- ParagraphII: Arguments against (drawbacks)
- Conclusion: Summarise the points discussed and give your point of view either for or against.
Example:
The mobile is one of the most important means of communication. However, its over use can cause harm to people.

1. INTRODUCTION: We should relate the mobile to its general context which is communication. Then, write about its specific use.

Only through communication people can know one another and not confront. In the past people used simple tools for communication, such as fire, drums, or pigeons. Later, thanks to the development of writing, they started to exchange letters. Following that, they used the telegraph. However, today they can send written messages, or videos thanks to the mobile which has certainly expanded worldwide. However, this small gadget may cause harm if it is overused.
General Specific
1. PARAGRAPH 1 : ARGUMENTS FOR
The mobile is used for multiple purposes. It can be used either to contact a family member, or a friend via sound or messages. Furthermore, many youngsters use it to store their music, or play games. For businessmen its their mobile office where they can get in touch day and night with their employees and partners. More than that, the cell phone can help people in emergencies. For instance, if they ever have a car breakdown, or an injury, the mobile resolves the problem on the spot. Students can contact their parents or classmates. The mobile helps people in different situations.
1. PARAGRAPH 2 : ARGUMENTS AGAINST
On the other hand, if used excessively, the mobile can cause harm to people. Mobiles may cause harm to people’s brains if we overuse them according to some researches. Moreover, they can be the cause of several road accidents if used in driving. They are sometimes a source of disturbance when we are relaxing, having a rest, or attending a course. The ringing of the cell phone interrupts your sleep, your rest, or distracts you concentration.
1. CONCLUSION: We sum up the points discussed in paragraph 1 and 2, and we give our opinion.
All in all, the mobile is useful to people; however, if it is not used efficaciously, it may have negative impacts on them. Therefore, we should not utilize the mobile unless it is very necessary.

Summary of the points discussed Point of view.
Write about these topics:
• The use of the mobile has become of paramount importance in our life. However,
some people complain about its dangers.
• The internet has certainly revolutionized our way of living positively and negatively.

• SHOULD DRIVERS OF AUTOMOBILES BE PROHIBITED FROM USING CELLULAR PHONES?

• TECHNOLOGY MAKES COMMUNICATION EASIER IN TODAY'S WORLD. MANY PEOPLE CHOOSE TO WORK AT HOME IN FRONT OF A COMPUTER SCREEN. WHAT DANGER DOES THE SOCIETY FACE DEPENDING ON COMPUTER SCREENS RATHER THAN FACE-TO-FACE CONTACT AS THE MAIN MEANS OF COMMUNICATION? Are we the prisoners of the progress?
o SHOULD THE ANIMALS BE USED FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH? Is it humanly?
o SHOULD RESTRICTIONS BE PLACED ON THE USE OF MOBILE PHONES IN PUBLIC AREAS LIKE RESTAURANTS AND THEATERS?

o DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY

The purpose of a descriptive essay is to describe a person, place, or thing in such vivid detail that the reader can easily form a precise mental picture of what is being written about.
INTRODUCTION :
From general to specific
PARAGRAPH 1 :
We describe what we see: sight
PARAGRAPH 2:
We describe what we hear: Sound
PARAGRAPH 3:
We describe what we smell: Smelling
PARAGRAPH 4:
We describe what we taste: Taste
PARAGRAPH 5:
We describe what we touch: Feeling

Example:
Describe a school experience which has really marked you.

Introduction:
Among of the best souvenirs in life are school experiences which remain engraved in our memory for the rest of our lives. They symbolize innocence, spontaneity, and adventure. This is one of the unforgettable experiences I had when I was in my final year in primary school.

DESCRIPTION OF WHAT WE SEE: SIGHT

When I got to school, I could see crowds of students scattered in front the school entrance which looked clean, and some students were accompanied by their parents. There was a big board inside the school yard where the lists of the examinees were written. The teachers were grouped in front of the headmaster office, and were dressed formally.

DESCRIPTION OF WHAT WE HEAR: SOUND

I could hear the sounds of the teachers and the headmaster slamming his office door several times. The students were mostly silent not as usual probably because of the fear of the exam. I could hear a father advising his son what to do and what not to do, but his son did not seem to hear him. He was certainly absorbed in the exam, and was just nodding or shaking his head to answer his father.

DESCRITION OF WHAT WE SMELL: SMELL
When we came into the classrooms, I could smell different perfume the teachers and students were wearing. When our teacher handed the exam papers out, I could not believe my eyes when one of the students folded his exam paper and put it in his school bag. As soon the bell rang, he rushed out looking very happy as though he had done well in the exam. I was really astonished and bewildered.

DESCRITION OF WHAT WE TASTE: TASTE
It was the break and students were eating the food they had brought with them. I wasn’t hungry, so I just tasted the sandwich my mother had prepared for me. I didn’t enjoy eating the food because I was thinking about the second examination.

DESCRITION OF WHAT WE TOUCH: FEELING

When we finished exam and I left, my parents were waiting for me at the school entrance. They asked me how I took my exam, and to my surprise the classmate who put the exam paper in his pocket came running happily towards me. He took out his exam papers which were blank with no answers on them. He was caressing them with his fingers as if he had been feeling a cat’s fur, and told me that he had been looking forward to such an opportunity to own a typed paper even if it cost him to fail an exam.

Write about one of these topics:
o You went for a picnic with your friends. Write a description of what you did.

o Write about a school experience which has marked you.

o Describe a wedding party which you attended.

o Write about an embarrasing experience you had.


COMPARISON AND CONTRAST




Linking words: also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly, for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrate


8. Paragraph I: Introduction

9. Paragraph II: Similarities


10. Paragraph III: Differences

Paragraph IV: Conclusion: Summarise the points discussed and give your opinion (all in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to sum up)

Example: Compare the role of women in the past and now.


No one can deny that the role of the woman is of capital paramount in the family as well as in the society. If the role of women in the past was limited only to bearing and rearing children and staying at home to do domestically work; nowadays women have joined men in their outside work. We see them as soldiers, policewomen, pilots, even as political leaders negotiating over tough topics. In brief, the role of women has improved enormously.

Women used to bring up the children and do the housework like cooking, cleaning, and laundry manually. Similarly, today the housework is a task of the woman but with the assistance of domestic gadgets, such as washing machines, vacuum cleaners, dish washers, electric beaters, etc. If women were totally forbidden from going out except to go to the public bath or visit their families. In the same manner, women today can go out just to do the shopping, call in their families, or go to the steam bath.

On the other hand women, especially in developed countries are empowered and play a significant role in the development of the society. Whereas, in the past women were considered as enemies of men and if given more power, they would threaten men’s authority and leadership. A woman should not rise her voice, or protest. She had to obey the man’s orders. Today, women found associations to defend their rights nationally and internationally.
To sum up, if the role of women was very limited in the past, nowadays women are given more and more importance thanks to their struggling and unification. Besides, people have started to understand that we cannot achieve any development without a real participation of women.
WRITE ABOUT THESE TOPICS:
o Would you rather study in a public school or in a private school? State the differences and similarities between the two.
o Several people leave the country to live in the city. Compare life in the country and in the city.
o Would you prefer to be taught by a male or female teacher?
o Where would you like to spen
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